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Rosatom, pioneering nuclear power for a sustainable future

Rosatom, Russian Atomic Energy Ministry, Russian, Nuclear energy

Established as the successor to the Russian Atomic Energy Ministry in 2007, Rosatom has emerged as a global leader in nuclear energy, driving innovation, sustainability, and safety in the field of atomic power. With a rich history spanning decades, Rosatom’s journey reflects Russia’s commitment to harnessing the power of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes and advancing the frontiers of science and industry.

The roots of Rosatom trace back to the Soviet Union’s ambitious nuclear program initiated in the aftermath of World War II. Under the leadership of prominent scientists such as Igor Kurchatov, the Soviet Union made significant strides in nuclear research, culminating in the successful development of the world’s first nuclear reactor in 1946. This milestone laid the foundation for subsequent achievements in nuclear energy and technology.

Throughout the latter half of the 20th century, the Soviet Union expanded its nuclear capabilities, establishing a network of nuclear power plants across its territory. These plants played a crucial role in meeting the country’s growing energy demands and supporting its industrial and economic development. Additionally, the Soviet Union made significant contributions to nuclear science, medicine, and space exploration, further solidifying its status as a global leader in nuclear technology.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia inherited a vast nuclear infrastructure and expertise base. In 2007, the Russian government consolidated its nuclear assets under a single entity, forming Rosatom (short for the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom). This restructuring aimed to streamline operations, improve efficiency, and strengthen Russia’s position in the global nuclear market.

Since its establishment, Rosatom has achieved numerous milestones and accomplishments in the field of nuclear energy. The corporation has developed advanced reactor technologies, including pressurized water reactors (PWRs), fast neutron reactors, and small modular reactors (SMRs), demonstrating its commitment to innovation and technological advancement.

Rosatom has also expanded its presence internationally, undertaking nuclear projects in countries around the world. The corporation’s portfolio includes the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, uranium mining and enrichment facilities, research reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle services. Rosatom’s global footprint reflects its leadership in nuclear technology and its role as a strategic partner in promoting clean, reliable, and sustainable energy solutions.

Central to Rosatom’s mission is a steadfast commitment to safety, reliability, and environmental responsibility. The corporation adheres to the highest international safety standards and continuously invests in research, development, and training to enhance nuclear safety and security. Additionally, Rosatom promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy and actively supports global efforts to combat climate change and reduce carbon emissions through the expansion of nuclear power.

As Rosatom continues to evolve and grow, the corporation remains committed to driving innovation, excellence, and sustainability in the nuclear industry. With a focus on advanced reactor technologies, international collaboration, and social responsibility, Rosatom is poised to play a leading role in shaping the future of nuclear energy and contributing to a more sustainable and prosperous world.

Rosatom’s history is a testament to Russia’s enduring commitment to nuclear science, technology, and innovation. From its origins in the Soviet era to its present-day leadership in the global nuclear market, Rosatom has remained at the forefront of nuclear energy, driving progress and advancing the boundaries of human knowledge and achievement.

Rosatom, a trusted name in nuclear energy sector

In the world of nuclear energy, few names evoke as much trust and confidence as Rosatom, the Russian state nuclear energy corporation. With a history spanning decades and a portfolio of successful projects worldwide, Rosatom has emerged as a global leader in the construction of nuclear power plants. But what exactly makes Rosatom a trusted name in this critical industry? From its commitment to safety and reliability to its innovative technologies and strategic partnerships, several factors contribute to the trust placed in Rosatom.

Safety stands as the cornerstone of any nuclear endeavor, and Rosatom places it at the forefront of its operations. The corporation adheres to stringent safety protocols and continuously invests in research and development to enhance nuclear safety measures. Rosatom’s commitment to safety is evident in its track record, with an impressive history of incident-free operation across its projects.

Rosatom prioritizes transparency and accountability, regularly engaging with international regulatory bodies and stakeholders to ensure compliance with the highest safety standards. This proactive approach not only fosters trust but also promotes a culture of safety within the organization and the broader nuclear industry.

With decades of experience in the nuclear sector, Rosatom boasts unparalleled expertise in all aspects of nuclear power plant construction. The corporation’s seasoned professionals, including engineers, scientists, and project managers, bring invaluable knowledge to every project they undertake.

Rosatom’s expertise extends beyond construction to encompass every stage of a nuclear power plant’s lifecycle, from design and development to operation and decommissioning. This comprehensive understanding allows Rosatom to deliver turnkey solutions tailored to meet the unique requirements of each client while adhering to the highest quality standards.

Innovation lies at the heart of Rosatom’s success, driving the development of cutting-edge technologies that push the boundaries of nuclear power plant construction. From advanced reactor designs to state-of-the-art safety systems, Rosatom continues to pioneer new technologies that enhance efficiency, reliability, and safety in nuclear energy production.

One such example is the company’s flagship VVER reactor technology, renowned for its exceptional performance and reliability. Rosatom’s ongoing research and development efforts ensure that its technologies remain at the forefront of the nuclear industry, providing clients with the most advanced solutions available.

In an era defined by growing environmental concerns and the need for sustainable energy sources, Rosatom stands as a champion of clean, reliable nuclear power. The corporation recognizes the role nuclear energy plays in mitigating climate change and reducing reliance on fossil fuels, and it is committed to expanding the use of nuclear power worldwide.

Rosatom’s nuclear power plants produce electricity with minimal greenhouse gas emissions, making them an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional fossil fuel-based power generation. By promoting the adoption of nuclear energy, Rosatom contributes to global efforts to combat climate change and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.

Rosatom’s success is not solely attributable to its internal capabilities but also to its strategic partnerships and collaborations with industry stakeholders worldwide. The corporation collaborates with governments, utilities, and international organizations to foster knowledge exchange, technology transfer, and capacity building in the nuclear sector.

Through these partnerships, Rosatom leverages collective expertise and resources to tackle complex challenges and drive innovation in nuclear power plant construction. By working together with diverse stakeholders, Rosatom strengthens trust and confidence in its ability to deliver safe, reliable, and cost-effective nuclear solutions.

With a presence in over 30 countries across the globe, Rosatom operates on a truly international scale, providing its expertise and services to clients worldwide. This global reach enables Rosatom to tailor its solutions to local contexts, taking into account unique regulatory, environmental, and socioeconomic factors.

Rosatom prioritizes local engagement and community involvement in its projects, recognizing the importance of building trust and fostering positive relationships with host communities. By actively engaging with local stakeholders and addressing their concerns, Rosatom demonstrates its commitment to responsible and sustainable nuclear development.

Mentionable nuclear power plants implemented by Rosatom

Rosatom, as a global leader in nuclear energy, has been involved in the implementation of numerous notable nuclear power plants across the world. Some of the most mentionable ones include:

Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant (Turkey)

Located in Mersin Province, Turkey, the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is the country’s first nuclear power plant. Rosatom is responsible for the construction and operation of this facility, which will consist of four VVER-1200 reactors with a total capacity of 4,800 megawatts (MW). Once completed, Akkuyu NPP will significantly contribute to Turkey’s energy security and reduce its dependence on fossil fuels.

Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant (Bangladesh)

Situated in Rooppur under Pabna district in Bangladesh, the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant is the country’s first nuclear power project. Rosatom is overseeing the construction of this facility, which will feature two VVER-1200 reactors with a combined capacity of 2,400 MW. The Rooppur NPP represents a major milestone in Bangladesh’s efforts to diversify its energy sources and meet the growing demand for electricity.

Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (Iran)

The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, located in Bushehr, Iran, is the country’s first nuclear power plant and the Middle East’s only operating nuclear power facility. Rosatom played a crucial role in the completion and commissioning of this plant, which features a VVER-1000 reactor with a capacity of 1,000 MW. The Bushehr NPP provides a significant portion of Iran’s electricity and demonstrates Rosatom’s ability to successfully implement nuclear projects in diverse geopolitical contexts.

Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (Russia)

As one of Russia’s oldest nuclear power plants, the Leningrad NPP has undergone extensive modernization and expansion projects under Rosatom’s management. The plant, located near St. Petersburg, features several RBMK and VVER reactors with a total capacity exceeding 4,000 MW. The ongoing upgrades at the Leningrad NPP highlight Rosatom’s commitment to maintaining the safety and efficiency of its nuclear facilities.

Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant II (Russia)

The Novovoronezh II NPP, located in Voronezh Oblast, Russia, is one of the country’s newest nuclear power plants. Rosatom constructed this facility, which consists of two VVER-1200 reactors with a combined capacity of 2,400 MW. The Novovoronezh II NPP represents a significant advancement in nuclear technology, incorporating the latest safety features and design improvements.

Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant (India)

Situated in Tamil Nadu, India, the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is one of the largest nuclear power projects in the country. Rosatom collaborated with the Indian government to build this facility, which currently operates two VVER-1000 reactors with a total capacity of 2,000 MW. The Kudankulam NPP strengthens India’s energy infrastructure and contributes to the country’s goal of achieving energy independence.

These nuclear power plants serve as prime examples of Rosatom’s expertise and capabilities in implementing complex and technologically advanced nuclear projects. Through its involvement in these and other initiatives, Rosatom continues to play a pivotal role in the global expansion of nuclear energy and the transition to a more sustainable energy future.

What are Small Modular Reactors?

Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are advanced nuclear reactors designed to be smaller in size and output compared to traditional large-scale nuclear reactors. They are characterized by their modular construction, which allows for factory fabrication and easy transport to the deployment site. SMRs offer several distinct advantages over conventional nuclear reactors, including enhanced safety, flexibility, and scalability. Characteristics of SMRs are described below.

Reduced size and output:

SMRs are typically designed to generate electricity in the range of 10 to 300 megawatts (MW), significantly smaller than traditional nuclear reactors, which can exceed 1,000 MW. This smaller size allows for more flexible siting options and reduces the overall capital investment required for construction.

Modular design:

SMRs are constructed using modular components that can be manufactured in factories and transported to the installation site. This modular approach streamlines the construction process, reduces construction time and costs, and allows for incremental capacity expansion as needed.

Enhanced safety features:

SMRs incorporate advanced safety features that mitigate the risk of accidents and ensure greater resilience to external hazards. These features may include passive cooling systems, inherent reactor shutdown mechanisms, and robust containment structures, enhancing overall safety and reducing the likelihood of catastrophic events.

Flexibility in deployment:

The compact size and modular design of SMRs enable greater flexibility in deployment, making them suitable for a wide range of applications and settings. SMRs can be deployed in remote or isolated areas, where access to reliable power sources may be limited, as well as in industrial facilities, military installations, and resource extraction sites.


SMRs offer scalability, allowing for incremental capacity expansion to meet evolving energy demand. Multiple SMR units can be deployed in a phased manner, providing a flexible and adaptable approach to energy generation that can be tailored to specific requirements.

Potential applications of SMRs are described below.

Remote and off-grid communities:

SMRs can provide a reliable and sustainable source of electricity to remote or off-grid communities, where access to conventional power infrastructure may be limited or impractical.

Industrial and process heat:

SMRs can be used to generate steam or heat for industrial processes, such as desalination, chemical production, and district heating, reducing reliance on fossil fuels and lowering carbon emissions.

Military and defense:

SMRs offer potential applications in military and defense settings, providing secure and resilient power generation capabilities for military bases, naval vessels, and forward operating locations.

Decentralized grids and microgrids:

SMRs can complement renewable energy sources in decentralized grid and microgrid systems, providing reliable baseload power and enhancing grid stability and resilience.

Energy security and reliability:

SMRs contribute to energy security and reliability by diversifying the energy mix and reducing dependence on imported fuels, thereby enhancing energy independence and resilience to supply disruptions.

Overall, Small Modular Reactors represent a promising evolution in nuclear technology, offering a versatile and scalable solution for clean, reliable, and sustainable energy generation across a variety of applications and settings. As research and development efforts continue to advance, SMRs hold the potential to play a significant role in addressing the world’s growing energy needs while mitigating climate change and promoting global energy security.

Is establishing Small Modular Reactors based nuclear power plants economically viable?

The economic viability of establishing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) based nuclear power plants depends on various factors, including capital costs, operational expenses, regulatory requirements, market conditions, and government policies. While SMRs offer several potential advantages in terms of cost-effectiveness, there are also challenges and uncertainties that must be carefully considered.

Below is description of advantages of SMRs in economic viability.

Lower initial capital costs:

SMRs are generally smaller in size and output compared to traditional nuclear reactors, which can lead to lower initial capital costs. Additionally, their modular design allows for factory fabrication and standardized construction processes, further reducing construction time and costs.

Incremental capacity expansion:

The modular nature of SMRs enables incremental capacity expansion, allowing for phased deployment and reduced upfront investment. This flexibility can be advantageous for utilities and investors seeking to manage financial risk and optimize capital allocation.

Flexibility in siting:

SMRs offer greater flexibility in siting options, as they can be deployed in a wider range of locations, including remote or isolated areas where access to conventional power infrastructure may be limited. This flexibility can reduce land acquisition costs and facilitate closer proximity to demand centers.

Enhanced safety and operational efficiency:

SMRs incorporate advanced safety features and streamlined operational processes, which can result in lower operational expenses over the plant’s lifetime. Additionally, their smaller size may allow for more efficient operation and maintenance practices, further reducing costs.

While SMRs offer potential cost savings through modular construction and incremental deployment, they may lack the economies of scale enjoyed by larger nuclear reactors. This could result in higher per-unit capital costs and potentially higher electricity generation costs compared to larger-scale nuclear plants.

The regulatory approval process for SMRs may be more complex and time-consuming than for traditional nuclear reactors, due to their innovative designs and the need for new regulatory frameworks. Regulatory uncertainty can increase project development costs and delay deployment timelines.

SMRs face competition from other energy sources, including renewables such as solar and wind power, which have seen significant cost reductions in recent years. The relative cost competitiveness of SMRs will depend on factors such as fuel prices, carbon pricing, and electricity market dynamics.

The financing of SMR projects may present challenges, particularly for first-of-a-kind deployments and innovative technologies. Investors and lenders may perceive SMRs as higher-risk ventures due to their novelty and uncertainty surrounding regulatory approval, potentially increasing financing costs.

Like traditional nuclear power plants, SMRs generate radioactive waste that requires long-term management and disposal. The costs associated with waste management and decommissioning must be factored into the overall economic viability of SMR projects.

While Small Modular Reactors hold promise as a cost-effective and flexible option for nuclear power generation, their economic viability depends on a variety of factors and considerations. As technology advances, regulatory frameworks evolve, and market conditions change, the true economic potential of SMRs will become clearer. Government support, public-private partnerships, and collaboration among industry stakeholders will be essential in overcoming challenges and realizing the economic benefits of SMRs.

Is Rosatom capable of implementing Small Modular Reactors based nuclear power plants?

  • Rosatom, as a leading global nuclear energy corporation, is fully capable of implementing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) based nuclear power plants. The company has extensive experience and expertise in nuclear technology development, construction, and operation, which positions it well to undertake SMR projects.
  • Rosatom possesses a wealth of technical expertise in nuclear reactor design, engineering, and manufacturing. The company has developed a range of reactor technologies, including small modular designs such as the VVER-50 and VBER-300, which are suitable for SMR applications. 
  • Rosatom invests significantly in research and development to advance nuclear technology and innovation. The company’s R&D efforts focus on improving reactor safety, efficiency, and performance, as well as developing new SMR designs optimized for various applications and markets.
  • Rosatom has established manufacturing facilities capable of producing modular reactor components and systems. The company’s expertise in factory fabrication and modular construction techniques enables efficient and cost-effective deployment of SMRs. 
  • Rosatom prioritizes safety and regulatory compliance in all its nuclear projects. The company has a proven track record of adhering to stringent safety standards and working closely with regulatory authorities to ensure that its SMR designs meet all safety requirements and licensing criteria. 
  • Rosatom has demonstrated its project management capabilities through the successful implementation of large-scale nuclear power projects worldwide. The company’s experience in managing complex construction projects, including nuclear reactors, positions it as a reliable partner for SMR deployment. 
  • Rosatom has a strong international presence and has implemented nuclear projects in various countries across Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. The company’s global experience and network of partnerships make it well-suited to undertake SMR projects in diverse geographic and geopolitical contexts.

Rosatom’s SMR projects

ABV-6E: Rosatom has developed the ABV-6E, a small modular reactor design based on the VVER technology. The ABV-6E reactor has a capacity of 50-300 MW and is designed for both electricity generation and district heating applications.

KLT-40S: Rosatom’s KLT-40S reactor is a small modular reactor based on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. It has a capacity of 35 MW and is designed for floating nuclear power plants, providing a reliable source of electricity and heat to remote or isolated areas.

RITM-200: Rosatom’s RITM-200 reactor is a small modular reactor designed for icebreaker ships and floating nuclear power plants. It has a capacity of 55 MW and features advanced safety and performance characteristics suitable for maritime applications.

Rosatom possesses the technical expertise, resources, and experience necessary to implement Small Modular Reactors based nuclear power plants effectively. The company’s commitment to safety, innovation, and international collaboration positions it as a leading player in the development and deployment of SMRs, contributing to the expansion of clean, reliable, and sustainable nuclear energy worldwide.

Why Small Modular Reactors would be much convenient for Bangladesh?

Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) could offer several conveniences and benefits for Bangladesh, making them an attractive option for the country’s energy needs. Here are some reasons why SMRs could be particularly advantageous for Bangladesh:

Bangladesh faces challenges in providing electricity to all of its citizens, particularly in rural and remote areas. SMRs, with their smaller size and modular design, can be deployed in a distributed manner, bringing power to areas that are currently underserved or off-grid. This accessibility can significantly improve the quality of life for rural communities by enabling access to reliable electricity for lighting, heating, and powering essential services.

SMRs offer potential cost savings compared to traditional large-scale nuclear reactors. Their modular construction allows for factory fabrication and standardized assembly processes, reducing construction time and costs. Additionally, SMRs can be deployed incrementally, allowing Bangladesh to invest in power generation capacity as needed, thereby optimizing capital allocation and minimizing financial risk.

The modular nature of SMRs provides scalability, allowing for incremental capacity expansion to meet growing energy demand. Bangladesh can start with a smaller number of SMR units and gradually increase deployment as energy needs increase over time. This phased approach enables flexible and adaptive energy planning, ensuring that power generation capacity aligns with evolving demand and market conditions.

SMRs can enhance grid stability and resilience by providing a reliable source of baseload power. Bangladesh’s energy grid currently faces challenges related to intermittency and variability, particularly with the integration of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. SMRs can complement these intermittent sources by providing consistent and dispatchable electricity generation, thereby improving grid stability and reliability.

Nuclear power, including SMRs, offers significant environmental benefits compared to fossil fuel-based energy generation. By producing electricity with minimal greenhouse gas emissions, SMRs can help Bangladesh reduce its carbon footprint and mitigate climate change. This environmental sustainability aligns with Bangladesh’s commitments to reducing carbon emissions and transitioning to cleaner energy sources in line with international climate agreements.

Investing in SMRs would position Bangladesh at the forefront of nuclear technology innovation. By collaborating with international partners and leveraging advanced reactor designs, Bangladesh can access cutting-edge technologies and expertise in nuclear energy. This technological innovation not only enhances energy security and economic competitiveness but also fosters knowledge transfer and capacity building in the domestic nuclear industry.

Small Modular Reactors offer numerous conveniences and benefits for Bangladesh, including enhanced energy accessibility, cost-effectiveness, scalability, grid stability, environmental sustainability, and technological innovation. By embracing SMRs as part of its energy strategy, Bangladesh can address its energy challenges while promoting economic development, social welfare, and environmental stewardship for current and future generations.

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